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«Xen Mini-OS started as a small kernel example to demonstrate to developers how to port their kernels to Xen (for paravirtualization). More features got added over time such as a C library, TCP/IP stack, and POSIX environment» - http://openfoo.org/blog/redis-native-xen.html
Microkernel idea sort of strikes back from an unusual direction :) ‎- 9000
«Two recently announced projects are focusing on providing runtime environments that run barebone on Xen for Haskell and OCaml: Mirage for OCaml and HaLVM for Haskell. This will remove the conventional operating system» — a nice choice of instead-of-OS environments :) ‎- 9000