maitani » posted to maitani and linguistics
"The term is derived from the Greek verb διασπείρω (diaspeirō), "I scatter", "I spread about"[1] and that from διά (dia), "between, through, across"[1] + the verb σπείρω (speirō), "I sow, I scatter".[1] In Ancient Greece the term διασπορά (diaspora) hence meant "scattering"[1] and was inter alia used to refer to citizens of a dominant city-state who emigrated to a conquered land with the purpose of colonization, to assimilate the territory into the empire.[5] An example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule." ‎- maitani
Use of DIASPORA in modern English: "According to the Oxford English Dictionary Online, the first known recorded usage of the word diaspora in the English language was in 1876 referring "extensive diaspora work (as it is termed) of evangelizing among the National Protestant Churches on the continent".[11] The term became more widely assimilated into English by the mid 1950s, with long-term expatriates in significant numbers from other particular countries or regions also being referred to as a diaspora. An academic field, diaspora studies, has become established relating to this sense of the word." ‎- maitani
Rogers Brubaker (The 'diaspora' diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies Vol. 28 Nr. 1 January 2005 pp. 1-19.) identifies 3 core elements that are understood to be constitutive of diaspora: ‎- maitani
1) " Dispersion. This is today the most widely accepted criterion, and also the most straightforward. It can be interpreted strictly as forced or otherwise traumatic dispersion;15 more broadly as any kind of dispersion in space, provided that the dispersion crosses state borders; or (in the increasingly common metaphorical extensions of the term), more broadly still, so that dispersion within state borders may suffice" (p. 5). ‎- maitani
2) "Homeland Orientation. The second constitutive criterion is the orientation to a real or imagined ‘homeland’ as an authoritative source of value, identity and loyalty. Here a significant shift can be discerned in recent discussions. Earlier discussions strongly emphasized this criterion" (p. 5). ‎- maitani
3) "Boundary-Maintenance. The third constitutive criterion is what, following Armstrong (1976, pp. 394/7), I will call boundary-maintenance, involving the preservation of a distinctive identity vis-a`-vis a host society (or societies). [...] nturies a separate society or quasi-society in a larger polity (1976, pp. 393/4). Boundaries can be maintained by deliberate resistance to assimilation through self-enforced endogamy or other forms of self-segregation (Armstrong 1976, pp. 394/5; Smith 1986) or as an unintended consequence of social exclusion (Laitin 1995). On most accounts, boundary-maintenance is an indispensable criterion of diaspora" (p. 6). ‎- maitani